21 October 2016
Detailed descriptions of ancient flying machines available in our Shashtras are amazing. The ancients have clearly mentioned that the Vimaanas (Airplanes or Aeroplanes), in terms of their making and functioning, vary from Yuga to Yuga. While the Vimaanas of Treta and Dwapara Yugas functioned on Mantra and Tantra powers respectively, the Vimaanas of this (Kali) Yuga are described as Krutaka Vimaanas, the artificial flying machines. Listed here are from few such sources.
Vimaana Chandrika gives the division and description of various Vimaanass thus:
In Treta Yuga, as men were proficient in Mantras or potent hymns, the Vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwapara Yuga, as men possessed sound tantric knowledge, Vimaanas were made according to it. As both Mantra and Tantra are declined in Kali Yuga, the Vimaanas are known as Krutaka or Yantra or artificial. Thus, owing to changes dharma during the Yugas, the ancient seers have classified the Vimaanas of the 3 Yugas as of 3 different types.”
Vyomayaana Tantra says:
“By the influence of mantras in Treta, Vimaanas are of Maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of Tantras in Dwaapara, Vimaanas are of Tantrika type. Owing to decadence of both Mantra and Tantra in Kali Yuga, the Vimaanas has changed to artificial or Yantra type. ”Therefore there are 3 classes of Vimaanas are mentioned in ancient Indian Shaastras by seers or Rushis.
Also, in Yantra Kalpa, the similar description is provided: “Vimaanas are classified into Mantra and other types by experts according to differences in Yugas. They are defined as maantrika taantrika and Krutaka.”
The same is expressed in Kheta Yaana Pradeeptika and also in Vyoma Yaana Arka Prakaasika.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja presents these differences in Vimaanas over Yugas as below:
Pancha-Vimshan mantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena (Sootra 2)
“ Maantrika Vimaanas are of Pushpaka and other 25 varieties”
In the previous Sootra, Vimaanas were specified as of three types due to the differences in the three Yugas. In this Sootra, again Maantrika Vimaanas are said to be 25 types.
Similar to this, Saunaka Sootra says those 25 types are as follows:
Maantrika Vimaanas in Treta Yuga are 25 in number. They are Pushpaka, Ajamukha, Bhaagasvata, Jyotirmukha, Kowsika, Bheeshma, Sesha, Vajraanga, DyvatataSomanaka, Panchavarna, Shanmukhi, Panchabhaana, Mayoora, Shankara, Tripura, Vasuhaara, Panchaahana, Ambareesha, Trinetra and Bherunda.
Description in Manibhadrakaarika about the Vimaanas in Treta Yuga:
The Vimaanas of Treta Yuga are 32 of the Maantrika type.
Their names are given by Sage Gowtama are: Pushpaka, Ajamukha, Bhraaja, Swayam Jyothi, Kowshika, Nheeshmaka, Shesha, Vajraanga, Dyvata, Ujvala, Kolaahala, Archisha, Bhooshnu, Somaanka, Varnapanchaka, Shanmukha, Panchabhaanu, Mayoora, Shaankara Priya, Tripura, Vasuhaara, Panchaanana, Anbareesha, Trinetra, Bherunda etc.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja mentioned:
Bhyravaadi Bhedaat tantrika-shshat panchaashat (Soootra 3)
“Taantrika Vimaanas are of Bhyrava and other 56 varieties”
As per Bodhaanavrutti:
In the previous Sootra, the names of Maantrika Vimaanas were given. In this Sootra, the names of Tantrika Vimaanas of Dwapara Yuga are mentioned.
In shape, movement and speed, there is no difference between Maantrika Vimaanas and Taantrika Vimaanas. It is the way in which Shakti (Power) and the junction of sky and earth are incorporated.
There is only one difference between Taantrika Vimaanas and maantrika Vimaanas – the adaption of the power of sky and earth. In shape and movement variations, they are identical. There are 56 varieties of Taantrika Vimaanas.
In Dwaapara Yuga, Taantrika Vimaanas are 56. They are: Bhyrava, Nandaka, Vatuka, Virinchi tumbara, Vynateya, Bherunda, Makaradhwaja, shrungataka, Ambareesha, Sheshaasya, Saimtuka, Maatrika, Braaja, Paingala, Tittibha, Pramatha, hoorshini, Champaka Drownika, Rukmapunkha, Bhraamani, Kakubha, Kaalabhairava, Jambooka, Garudaasya, Gajaasya, Vasudeva, Soorasena, Veerabahu, Bhusunda, Grandhaka, Shukatunda, Kumuda, Krownchika, Ajagara. Panchadala, Kumbhaka, Ambaraasya, Maayooraka, Bheerunalika, kaamapaala, Gandharksha, Paariyaatra, Shakunta, Ravimandana, Vyaaghramukha, Vishnuratha, Sowarnika, Mruda, dambholi, Bruhatkunja, mahaanta etc.
Description in Manibhadrakarika about Taantrika Vimaanas in Dwapara Yuga:
In Dwaparayuga, Tantrika Vimaanas are said to be 56. Their names as described to Gowtama Rushi are: Bhyrava, Nandaka, Vatuka, Virinchika, Tumbura, Vyaateya, Bherunda, Makaradhwaja, Shrungaataka, Ambareesha, Seshaasya, Symhika, Maatruka, bhraajaka, Pyngala, Tittibha, Pramadha, Bhoorshnika, Champaka, Drownika, Rukmapunka, Bhraamanika, Kakubha, Kaalabhairava, Jambooka, Gireesa, garudaasya, Gajaasya, Vaasudeva, Soorasena, Veerabahu, Bhusundaka, Gandaka, Sukatunda, Kumuda, Krownchika. Ajagara, Panchadala, Chambuka, Dunduhi, Ambaraasya, Mayoora, Bheeru, Nalika, Kampaala, Gandaraksheha. Paariyaatra, Shakuntala, Ravinanadana, Vyasghramukha, Vishnu Ratha, Sauvarnika, Mruda, Dambholee, Bruhatkunja and Mahaanta
Shakunaadyaah Panchavimshat Krutakaah (Sootra 4)
-“Shakuna and other 25 types of Vimaana are Krutaka.”
In shape of movements, there is no difference in the Vimaanas, except in the matter of the use of Mantraas and Tantraas. The Krutika or artificial Vimaanas are of 25 varieties.
Saunaka Sootra elucidates the same as:
“Tisyay Krutika bhedaah Panchavigamshatih. Teesha, naamaanyanykramisyaamah: Shakuna sundara rukma mandala vakratunda bhadraka ruchaka vyaraaja bhaaskara gajaavarta powshkala virinchi nandaka kumuda mandrahamsa Sukaasya somaka krownchaka padkmaka symhika panchabaaNa awryaayana pushkara kodandaa iti.
Manibhadrakaarika gives the same account on artificial Vimanaas and the number of their types as in Kali Yuga:
In Kaliyuga, the Krutaka or artificial Vimaanas are 25 types. Their names are illustrated by Gowtama: Sundara, Rukmaka, Mandala, Vakratunda, Bhadraka, Ruchaka, Viraajaka, Bhaaskara, Gajaavartha, Powshkala, Viranchika, Nandaka, Kumuda, Mandara, Hamsa, Shukasya, Panchabaana, Owryaana, Pushkara and Kodanda.
Raaja Lohaa deteshaam Aakaara Rachanaa (Sootra 5)
-“These should be built out of Raajaloha”
Bodhaanandavrutti mentions, These 25 kinds of Vimaanas are to be made of Raajaloha metal only.
One of the seers, Kriyaasaara says:
In manufacturing artificial aero-planes, the best of metals are those known as Ooshamaapa or heat-imbibing or heat-resisting metals. Out if them, the variety known as Raajaloha or “The King of metals” is most suited to Shakuna and other Vinaamans.
Three kinds of metals – Soma, Soundaala and Maardweeka, in the proportion of 3.8 and 2 adding borax, to be flled in a crucible or smelter and placed in furnace and heated to 272 degrees and melted thoroughly and churned will result in the alloy Raajaloha.
“In the science of metals for the manufacture if aero-planes, 16 types of ooshmaapa or heat-sucking lohas (metals) are the very best. The fourth in that series is called as raajaloha. Shakuna Vimaana should be constructed by using that alone.”
The 28 parts of Shakuna Vimaanas are: Peetha or floor board; hollow mast; three-wheeled Keelakas with holes; four heaters; air-suction pipes, water jacket, oil tank, air heater, chhullee or heater, steam boiler, Vidyudyantra or electric generator, air propelling yantra, Vaatapa yantra or air-suction pipe, Dikpradarsha dhwaja or direction-indicating banner shakuna yantra, two wings, tail portion for helping Vimaana to raise, Owshmyaka yantra or engine, Kiranaakarshana mani or Sun-rat attracting head.
(Courtesy: Supatha & Bharatiya Vigyan Manjusha, Treasure Trove of Ancient Indian Sciences, M.S. Sreedharan, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India)